April 15, 2024

1. What is an industrial robot

Industrial robot is a multi-functional, multi-degree-of-freedom mechatronic automatic mechanical equipment and system, which can complete some operational tasks in the manufacturing process through repeated programming and automatic control. Combined with the manufacturing host or production line, a single or multi-machine automation system can be formed to realize production operations such as handling, welding, assembly, and spraying. At present, with the rapid development of industrial robot technology and industry, it has been more and more widely used in production, and has become an important highly automated equipment in modern production.

2, the characteristics of industrial robots

Since the first generation of robots came out in the United States in the early 1960s, the development and application of industrial robots have developed rapidly, but the most notable features of industrial robots are as follows. 1. Programmable. The further development of production automation is flexible automation. Industrial robots can be reprogrammed as the working environment changes, so they can play a good role in the small batch, multi-variety, balanced and efficient flexible manufacturing process, and are an important part of the flexible manufacturing system (FMS). 2. Anthropomorphic. Industrial robots have similar walking, waist rotation, forearm, forearm, wrist, claw and other parts in the mechanical structure, and have computers in terms of control. In addition, intelligent industrial robots have many biological sensors similar to humans, such as skin contact sensors, force sensors, load sensors, visual sensors, acoustic sensors, language functions, etc. Sensors improve the adaptability of industrial robots to the surrounding environment. 3. Versatility. In addition to specially designed special-purpose industrial robots, general industrial robots have good versatility when performing different operational tasks. For example, replacing the hand manipulator (claw, tool, etc.) of an industrial robot. Different operational tasks can be performed. 4. Mechatronics. Industrial robotics involves a wide range of disciplines, but it is a combination of mechanics and microelectronics. The third-generation intelligent robot not only has various sensors to obtain external environmental information, but also has artificial intelligence such as memory ability, language understanding ability, image recognition ability, reasoning and judgment ability, which is closely related to the application of microelectronics technology, especially computer technology applications are closely related. Therefore, the development of robotics technology, the development and application level of robotics technology can also verify the development and level of national science and technology and industrial technology.

3. Five application areas commonly used in industrial robots

1. Machining application (2%)

The application of robots in the machining industry is not high, accounting for only 2%. The reason may be that there are many automated equipment on the market that can handle machining tasks. Machining robots are mainly engaged in parts casting, laser cutting and water jet cutting.

2. Robotic spraying application (4%)

Robot spraying here mainly refers to painting, dispensing, painting and other work, only 4% of industrial robots are engaged in spraying applications.

3. Robot assembly applications (10%)

Assembly robots are mainly engaged in the installation, disassembly and maintenance of parts. Due to the rapid development of robot sensor technology in recent years, the application of robots has become more and more diversified, which directly leads to the decline of the proportion of robot assembly.

4. Robot welding applications (29%)

Applications of robotic welding mainly include spot welding and arc welding used in the automotive industry. Although spot welding robots are more popular than arc welding robots, arc welding robots have developed rapidly in recent years. Many processing workshops gradually introduce welding robots to realize automatic welding operations.

5. Robot handling applications (38%)

At present, handling is still the first application field of robots, accounting for about 40% of the overall robot applications. Many automated production lines require the use of robots for material, handling and stacking operations. The market share of handling robots has been growing in recent years with the rise of cobots. In recent years, with the development of technology, industrial robot technology is changing with each passing day, so different types of industrial machines involve high-tech technology?

Four and six types of industrial robots and their key technologies

1. Mobile robot (AGV)

Mobile robot (AGV) is a kind of industrial robot, which is controlled by computer and has functions such as movement, automatic navigation, multi-sensor control, and network interaction. It can be widely used in machinery, electronics, textile, cigarette, medical, food, paper and other industries. It is also used in automatic three-dimensional warehouses, flexible processing systems, and flexible assembly systems (AGV as an active assembly platform); at the same time, it can be used as a means of transportation for stations, airports, and post offices. One of the new trends in the development of international logistics technology, mobile robots are one of the core technologies and equipment. process, reduce material loss, reduce area, and reduce investment in high-tech and equipment construction.

2. Spot welding robot

The welding robot has stable performance, large working space, fast movement speed, strong load capacity, and the welding quality is obviously better than manual welding, which greatly improves the productivity of spot welding operations. Spot welding robots are mainly used for automobile welding, and the production process is completed by major automobile OEMs. International industrial robot companies have long-term cooperation with major automobile companies, providing various spot welding robot unit products for major automobile manufacturers, entering China in the form of welding robots and automobile production lines, and occupying a dominant market position in this field. With the development of the automobile industry, the welding production line requires welding tongs to be integrated, and the weight is getting larger and larger. The 165kg spot welding robot is currently the most commonly used robot in automotive welding. In September 2008, the Institute of Robotics developed and completed China’s first 165kg spot welding robot, which was successfully applied to the welding workshop of Chery Automobile. In September 2009, the second robot after optimization and performance improvement was completed and successfully accepted. The overall technical indicators of the robot have reached the level of similar foreign robots.

3. Arc welding robot

Arc welding robots are mainly used in the welding production of various auto parts. In this field, international large-scale industrial robot manufacturers mainly provide unit products to complete equipment suppliers.

Key technologies include:

(1) Optimal integration technology of arc welding robot system: arc welding robot adopts AC servo drive technology and high-precision, high-rigidity RV reducer and harmonic reducer, which has good low-speed stability and high-speed dynamic response, and can realize maintenance-free function . (2) Coordinated control technology: control the coordinated movement of multi-robots and positioners, which can not only maintain the relative posture of the welding torch and the workpiece, meet the requirements of the welding process, but also avoid the collision between the welding torch and the workpiece. (3) Accurate welding trajectory tracking technology: Combining the advantages of the laser sensor and the offline working mode of the visual sensor, the laser sensor is used to realize the welding tracking in the welding process, improve the flexibility and adaptability of the welding robot for complex workpieces, and combine the offline observation of the visual sensor to obtain welding Track the residual deviation, obtain the compensation data according to the deviation statistics, correct the robot movement trajectory, and obtain the best welding quality under various conditions.

4. Laser processing robot

Laser processing robots apply robot technology to laser processing, and realize more flexible laser processing operations through high-precision industrial robots. The system can be operated online through the teaching box or offline programming. The system automatically detects the workpiece, generates the workpiece model, and then generates the processing curve, and can also directly use CAD data for processing. Can be used for laser surface treatment, punching, welding and mold repair.

Key technologies include:

(1) Structural optimization design technology for laser processing robots: adopt a large-scale frame body structure to ensure robot accuracy while increasing the operating range; (2) Robot system error compensation technology: According to the requirements of comprehensive processing robots with large working space and high precision , combined with its structural characteristics, a hybrid robot compensation method of non-model method and model-based method is used to complete the compensation of geometric parameter errors and non-geometric parameter errors. (3) High-precision robot detection technology: combine three-coordinate measurement technology with robot technology to realize high-precision online measurement of robots. (4) Realization technology of special language for laser processing robot: According to the characteristics of laser processing and robot operation, complete the special language for laser processing robot. (5) Network communication and offline programming technology: it has serial port, CAN and other network communication functions to realize the monitoring and management of the robot production line; and realize the offline programming control of the robot.

5. Vacuum robot

A vacuum robot is a robot that works in a vacuum environment and is mainly used in the semiconductor industry to transfer wafers in a vacuum chamber. Vacuum manipulators are difficult to import, are restricted, use a large amount, and are highly versatile. They have become a key component that restricts the research and development progress of semiconductor equipment and the competitiveness of complete machine products. In addition, foreign countries have conducted strict scrutiny on Chinese buyers and belong to the embargoed product catalogue. Vacuum manipulators have become a neck problem that seriously restricts China’s semiconductor equipment manufacturing. Direct-drive vacuum robot technology is an original and innovative technology.

Key technologies include:

(1) New vacuum robot design technology: through structural analysis and optimal design, avoid international patents, and meet the requirements of vacuum robot stiffness and expansion ratio; (2) Large-gap vacuum direct-drive motor technology: involves motor theoretical analysis, structural design, production Technology, surface treatment of motor materials, low-speed high-torque control, small multi-axis drive, etc. (3) Design of multi-axis precision shafting in vacuum environment. The shaft-in-shaft design method is adopted to reduce the non-concentricity and inertial asymmetry between the shafts. (4) Dynamic trajectory correction technology: through the integration of sensor information and robot motion information, the reference position offset between the wafer and the finger is detected, and the motion trajectory is dynamically corrected to ensure that the robot accurately places the wafer from one station in the vacuum chamber. The circle is transferred to another station. (5) Vacuum robot language conforming to SEMI standard: complete the special language for vacuum robot according to the processing requirements of vacuum robot, robot operation characteristics and SEMI standard. (6) Reliability system engineering technology: In IC manufacturing, equipment failure will cause huge losses. According to the high requirements of semiconductor equipment for MCBF, test, evaluate and control the reliability of each component, improve the reliability of each component of the manipulator, and ensure that the manipulator meets the high requirements of IC manufacturing.

6. Cleaning robots

A cleaning robot is an industrial robot used to clean the environment. With the continuous improvement of the production technology level, the requirements for the production environment are also getting higher and higher. The production of many modern industrial products requires a clean environment. Cleaning robots are key equipment required for production in a clean environment.

Key technologies include:

(1) Clean lubrication technology: It adopts negative pressure dust suppression structure and non-volatile lubricating grease, which has no particle pollution to the environment and meets the cleaning requirements. (2) High-speed and stable control technology: Through trajectory optimization, the joint servo performance is improved to achieve the stability of cleaning and handling. (3) Controller miniaturization technology: According to the high construction and operating costs of the clean room, the space occupied by the cleaning robot is reduced through the controller miniaturization technology. (4) Wafer detection technology: Through optical sensors, information such as whether the wafers in the card box are missing or tilted can be obtained through robot scanning. With the development of smart devices, the advantages of robots in industrial manufacturing have become more and more obvious, and robot companies have sprung up like mushrooms after rain. However, leading players still dominate.

Attachment: Top Ten Industrial Robot Brands

1. FANUC

FANUC is a Japanese company specializing in numerical control systems, the only company in the world that is manufactured by robots, and the only robot company in the world that provides integrated vision systems. There are as many as 240 types of FANUC robot product series, which are widely used in different production links such as assembly, handling, welding, casting, spraying, and palletizing.

2. Kuka

KUKA and its German parent company are the world’s top manufacturers of industrial robots and automatic control systems. Users of KUKA industrial robots include General Motors, Siemens and many others. The most common range of applications for KUKA robot products include factory welding, handling, stacking, packaging, processing or other automated operations, but they are also suitable for use in hospitals.

3. That Wisdom Is More Than Two

Wisdom is an all-round comprehensive manufacturing enterprise from raw material products to machine tools. Machining, industrial robots, functional components and other products are abundant, and the application fields are also very wide, such as aerospace industry, rail transit, automobile manufacturing, mechanical processing, etc. Wisdom pays more attention to the world, expands from the European and American markets to the Chinese market, and will develop the Southeast Asian market in the next step.

4. Kawasaki Robot

Kawasaki Robot offers a wide variety of robot products in the logistics production line, and has considerable sales in the fields of beverage, food, fertilizer, solar energy, etc. Kawasaki has a wide variety of palletizing robots, and provides the most suitable robot according to the different situations and needs of the customer’s workshop. There are spraying robots, welding robots and test spraying rooms in the company, which can provide customers with various related services.

5.ABB robot

China has become ABB’s largest market in the world. At present, ABB robot products and solutions have been widely used in welding, assembly, handling, spraying, finishing, packaging, stacking and other industries, helping customers greatly improve productivity.

6. Staubli

The Stäubli Group produces precision mechanics and electronics: textile machinery, industrial joints and industrial robots. This complete range of light, medium and heavy duty robots, 4-axis SCARA robots, 6-axis robots and specialty robots is dedicated to many different industries and applications. At present, the industrial robots produced by Stäubli have the characteristics of fast speed, high precision, good flexibility and good user environment.

7. Comau

The full range of robot products developed by Comau has a minimum load range of 6kg and a maximum load of 800kg. Comau’s latest generation of SMART series robots is the technical core of SMART automation application solutions, which are aimed at spot welding, arc welding, handling, automatic connection of compressors, casting, gluing, assembly and cutting. With its innovative technologies, Comau has become a leader in robotic automation integration solutions.

8. Epson Robot

At present, the products promoted by Epson Robotics in China are mainly 4-axis industrial robots and 6-axis industrial robots, and provide common industrial robot (manipulator) accessories in the industry. As a leader in the field of articulated industrial robots, Epson’s new LS series is designed to reduce heavy manual operations.

9. Yaskawa, Japan

Yaskawa robots are active in welding, handling, assembly, spraying, liquid crystal displays placed in clean rooms, plasma displays, semiconductor manufacturing and other industries. Japan’s Yaskawa industrial robots have been favored by users.

10. SIASUN robot

SIASUN Robotics is a high-tech enterprise with robotics and automation technology as its core, dedicated to the manufacture of digital high-end equipment. In the fields of industrial robots, intelligent logistics, automated complete equipment, intelligent service robots and other fields, the company has formed a company with industrial robot technology as its core. Large-scale automation complete sets of equipment and various product categories are widely used in auto parts, construction machinery, rail transit, low-voltage electrical appliances and other industries.

Common application fields and key technologies of industrial robots

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